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Ovulation means the same thing with the fertile period in women. It is the period when there are all chances to get pregnant in the absence of other pathological causes. Even so, ovulation is a rather complicated phenomenon and is not identified in all women during the same period. It depends a lot on the regularity of the menstrual cycle.

What is ovulation?

Ovulation is the maturation of one egg from the ovarian follicle. At each menstrual cycle, several ovarian follicles begin to develop and mature under the influence of hormones of the pituitary gland. Usually only one follicle develops completely. While the other follicles withdraw, the dominant follicle produces an egg that is released and can thus be fertilized.

What happens during ovulation?

As ovulation approaches, the amount of blood that reaches the ovaries increases, contracting the ligaments and raising the egg to the level of the fallopian tube. In this way, the egg can enter this tube. In the fallopian tube, the egg is transported to the uterus by the movement of "cilia", formations similar to perisors.

Ovulation usually occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle. At a regular cycle of 28 days it appears on day 14.

Signs of ovulation

- before ovulation, the cervical mucus has aqueous consistency to allow the sperm to reach the egg. Some women daily test the composition of the mucus to determine the favorable period of conception of a child;

- the basal temperature of the body increases;

- in some cases, women have mild abdominal cramps;

- the cervix begins to change - before ovulation is installed the cervix is ​​positioned higher, it is softer and open;

- the breasts begin to become more sensitive;

- sexual desire increases during ovulation.

Changes in the uterus

Before menstruation, the follicle that removes the egg turns into the yellow body, thus secreting progesterone, a hormone essential for the development of the fetus. If the egg is not fertilized, this body becomes white.

Estrogen and progesterone are often called female hormones, but both women and men have these substances in their blood but in different concentrations.

Progesterone causes the lining of the uterus membrane with mucus secreted by the small glands in its wall. If fertilization does not occur, the capillaries of the membrane accumulate blood and release it into the uterus along with the mucus. Thus appears menstruation, a period of bleeding that lasts between 4 and 8 days.

After ovulation

After the egg has been released it is taken over by one of the uterine tubes and gradually moves inside them. Here, fertilization can take place, if you want to become pregnant. The follicle that released the egg becomes known as the luteal body and begins to secrete progesterone.

The life of the egg is only 12-24 hours, maybe even less. Fertilization must necessarily take place during this period, in order to conceive the baby. After this interval, the egg begins to degrade and is no longer able to be fertilized. If you do not want to become pregnant, it is important to take maximum contraception during ovulation.

Ovulation and menstrual cycle phases

Ovulation is the event that defines the phases of the menstrual cycle. The stage before ovulation, when the ovarian follicles are just beginning to develop is called the follicular phase or stage. The one after ovulation is known as the luteal phase.

The duration of the follicular phase may vary from one woman to another, but the duration of the luteal phase is usually constant from one cycle to another in each woman and lasts between 10-16 days.

When menstrual cycles are said to be irregular it means that ovulation occurred sooner or later than usual. If you know when ovulation occurs, this helps you figure out when to have sex for conception and for identifying the duration of the luteal phase. Knowing the duration of this phase you can also track when the next menstruation comes or when you can do a pregnancy test for greater accuracy of the result.

When does ovulation occur?

At a regular menstrual cycle of 28 days she starts in the middle, ie on days 13-15, most often on the 14th day. Not all women have a regular cycle, however, and the ovulation period varies depending on the date of menstrual cycle. The more irregular it is, the more difficult it is to identify the fertile period. Not even the calendar method is useful in such cases.

Here's how you can calculate the fertile period if you have an irregular cycle:

- note the duration of your menstrual cycles;

- write down the shortest and longest cycle of at least 8-10 consecutive menstrual cycles;

- for the identification of the first ovulation day, the shortest cycle is taken into account and the number 18 is subtracted from it.

Not even this method is 100% efficient, so it is not advisable to rely solely on the above body signals.

The most effective methods of identifying ovulation

The identification of ovulation and fertile period should be made clearly following the signals transmitted by your body:

- cervical mucus analysis;
- correct measurement of the basal temperature;
- following the change of the position of the cervix;
- the ovulation detection test;
- ovulation calculator.

Spontaneous ovulation

Spontaneous ovulation usually occurs in women who have an irregular cycle. But even those who have a regular menstrual cycle are no exception, although in these cases are much rarer. It represents the sudden onset of ovulation outside its normal period of installation.

Specialists believe that this can occur against the background of emotional trauma, but the exact cause is not known. The specialists do not even recognize this theory, claiming that the accidental pregnancies appear against the background of a miscalculation of ovulation by the woman.

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